The use of gypsum, a material widely used in many historical centers of central-western Sicily, mainly concerns the use in vaults realization, floors and roofs screeds, its use as a binding mortar, but also as exterior coatings (Montana, Polito, Randazzo, 2010; Mamì 2007). Traditional material is however very different from the modern plaster mortars for finishes, cause its rough and coarse consistency, with considerable size crystals . Studies carried out on historical plaster mortars and industrial plaster mortars have shown that the size and shape of the crystals and percentage porosity between historic mortars and industrial plaster mortars are different, and how these characteristics allow them to be used outdoors. The proposed study investigates historical technologies based on the use of gypsum in two historical Sicilian centers (Caltanissetta and Enna), through surveys from historical documents, use and origin, technological surveys, from initial mineralogical-petrographic analysis. The study of this material, present in other Italian areas such as Piedmont (Accurti, Baronio, Chiari, Giordani, Mannoni, Nicola, 2001) and Emilia-Romagna (Franzoni, Sandrolini, Baldazzi, 2010), in many historical architectures of Southern and North-Eastern Spain (Sanz Aranz, Villanueva Dominguez, 2009), as in Germany (Middendorf, 2016) is however not very present in the literature on the conservation of materials in Italy. This circumstance often determines its disposal. Its maintenance, instead, can represent, for its characteristics, a resource both for the preservation of the identity characteristics of the historical building and for the both energetic and economic sustainability in the territories of its use.
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