In The Netherlands the climate is changing rapidly, the sea level is probably rising faster than has been assumed, and more extreme variations in river discharge are expected. To counteract environmental risks and to tackle the climatic change, the Netherlands has implemented, since the early years of the 21st century, national directives and strategies that have sought to promote spatial planning, urban design and territorial governance in able to implement actions that would enable cities to be less vulnerable and to promote awareness-raising actions that would allow citizens and urban stakeholders to acquire knowledge and techniques useful for dealing with the climatic changes. The main aim is to have a shared ambitions for climate proof urban development and to make specific concrete agreements about this. In The Netherlands there is a strong convergence of interests between the central government and the individual municipalities, a union that is difficult to implement, but desirable, in countries such as Italy due to the excessive size and the normative and administrative organization. Resilience thinking is being incorporated in the policymaking and initiatives across all domains of city government, including across social, physical and economic programmes. This is methodologically auspicable in different National and International contexts.
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