As a major life trauma, COVID-19 had negative impacts on psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to test and verify the mediation of resilience, hope and self-efficacy and to analyze the moderating effect of gender and COVID-19 contagion on the association between symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and post-traumatic growth among adults during COVID19. A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey with self-administered questionnaires. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Resilience Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Comprehensive State Hope Scale were used. A total of 493 (n = 262 female and n = 231 male) participated in the survey (M = 33.40 years, SD= 13.41, range= 20 to 60). A multiple mediation model was used to verify the mediating effect of resilience, hope and self-efficacy on the relationship between symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and PTG. A moderated mediation model was examined to find and test the moderated effects of gender and COVID-19 contagion on the mediation model. Results showed the indirect effects of anxiety ( = 0.340 (0.120); 95% CI [from 0.128 to 0.587]) and depression ( = 0.222 (0.095); 95% CI [0.048, 0.429]) on PTG trough resilience and hope. Symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and self-efficacy were significantly highest in females. Moreover, males and participants with COVID-19 contagion had significantly higher levels of resilience and post-traumatic growth. These findings suggest that hope and resilience, as protective factors, could be an important key to developing an intervention strategy to enhance and improve psychological health during a crisis.

The Moderated Mediating Effect of Hope, Self-Efficacy and Resilience in the Relationship between Post-Traumatic Growth and Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Donatella Di Corrado
;
Paola Magnano;
2022

Abstract

As a major life trauma, COVID-19 had negative impacts on psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to test and verify the mediation of resilience, hope and self-efficacy and to analyze the moderating effect of gender and COVID-19 contagion on the association between symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and post-traumatic growth among adults during COVID19. A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey with self-administered questionnaires. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Resilience Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Comprehensive State Hope Scale were used. A total of 493 (n = 262 female and n = 231 male) participated in the survey (M = 33.40 years, SD= 13.41, range= 20 to 60). A multiple mediation model was used to verify the mediating effect of resilience, hope and self-efficacy on the relationship between symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and PTG. A moderated mediation model was examined to find and test the moderated effects of gender and COVID-19 contagion on the mediation model. Results showed the indirect effects of anxiety ( = 0.340 (0.120); 95% CI [from 0.128 to 0.587]) and depression ( = 0.222 (0.095); 95% CI [0.048, 0.429]) on PTG trough resilience and hope. Symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression, and self-efficacy were significantly highest in females. Moreover, males and participants with COVID-19 contagion had significantly higher levels of resilience and post-traumatic growth. These findings suggest that hope and resilience, as protective factors, could be an important key to developing an intervention strategy to enhance and improve psychological health during a crisis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11387/152222
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