Purpose: Adolescence represents an important window for gonadal development. The aim of this review is to carry out a critical excursus of the most recent literature on endogenous and exogenous risk factors related to testicular function, focusing the research on adolescence period. Methods: A comprehensive literature search within PubMed was performed to provide a summary of currently available evidence regarding the impact on adolescence of varicocele, cryptorchidism, cancer, diabetes, lifestyle factors, endocrine disruptors, obesity and sexually transmitted diseases. We focused on human studies that evaluated a possible impact of these factors on puberty timing and their effects on andrological health. Results: Evidence collected seems to suggest that andrological health in adolescence may be impaired by several factors, as varicocele, cryptorchidism, and childhood cancer. Despite an early diagnosis and treatment, many adolescents might still have symptoms and sign of a testicular dysfunction in their adult life and at the current time it is not possible to predict which of them will experience andrological problems. Lifestyle factors might have a role in these discrepancies. Most studies point out towards a correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, alcohol, smoking, use of illegal drugs and testicular function in pubertal boys. Also, endocrine disruptors and sexually transmitted diseases might contribute to impair reproductive health, but more studies in adolescents are needed. Conclusion: According to currently available evidence, there is an emerging global adverse trend of high-risk and unhealthy behaviors in male adolescents. A significant proportion of young men with unsuspected and undiagnosed andrological disorders engage in behaviors that could impair testicular development and function, with an increased risk for later male infertility and/or hypogonadism during the adult life. Therefore, adolescence should be considered a key time for intervention and prevention of later andrological diseases.
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