Purpose: The current clinical practice in reproductive medicine should pose the couple at the centre of the diagnostic–therapeutic management of infertility and requires intense collaboration between the andrologist, the gynaecologist and the embryologist. The andrologist, in particular, to adequately support the infertile couple, must undertake important biological, psychological, economical and ethical task. Thus, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted role of the andrologist in the study of male factor infertility. Methods: A comprehensive Medline, Embase and Cochrane search was performed including publications between 1969 and 2021. Results: Available evidence indicates that a careful medical history and physical examination, followed by semen analysis, always represent the basic starting points of the diagnostic work up in male partner of an infertile couple. Regarding treatment, gonadotropins are an effective treatment in case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and FSH may be used in men with idiopathic infertility, while evidence supporting other hormonal and nonhormonal treatments is either limited or conflicting. In the future, pharmacogenomics of FSHR and FSHB as well as innovative compounds may be considered to develop new therapeutic strategies in the management of infertility. Conclusion: To provide a high-level of care, the andrologist must face several critical diagnostical and therapeutical steps. Even though ART may be the final and decisive stage of this decisional network, neglecting to treat the male partner may ultimately increase the risks of negative outcome, as well as costs and psychological burden for the couple itself.
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