: Fighting cancer is an economically expensive challenge for both health care payers, and the patients and their families and the median costs for cancer care are rapidly increasing in the last decade. Although both direct and indirect costs of medical assistance have been a frequent source of distress and contention, however analysis of the non-medical expenses incurred directly by cancer patients has not received adequate attention. Developing a deeper understanding of so-called "out-of-pocket" costs may be necessary. Out-of-pocket costs for medical care range from 7 % to 11 % of medical costs for all payers. However, the range of out-of-pocket costs shows considerable variability in different studies. In this review, we reviewed available data concerning direct and indirect medical costs, including psychosocial ones.
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