The efficacy of the current HIV therapy has led to increased survival and prolongation of the average life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as the emergence of comorbidities and non-AIDS related cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Current evidence suggests that HCC is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. In fact, HCC prevalence rate is indeed higher with respect to the general population average. In this paper, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic management of Hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Several therapeutic options are available depending on several factors as HCC stage, liver functions, comorbidities and they have been divided into three groups: potentially curative, proven effective but not curative, and unproven or ineffective therapy. In HIV-infected patients, surgical options are preferred compared to non-surgical therapies. Further studies, especially multicenter ones, are needed in order to define the most appropriate, evidence-based therapeutic approach to PLWH suffering from HCC. It also appears necessary to develop appropriate care guidelines for PLWH.
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