Mitochondria are the only organelles, along with the nucleus, that have their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a double-stranded circular molecule of similar to 16.5 kbp that can exist in multiple copies within the organelle. Both strands are translated and encode for 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 proteins. mtDNA molecules are anchored to the inner mitochondrial membrane and, in association with proteins, form a structure called nucleoid, which exerts a structural and protective function. Indeed, mitochondria have evolved mechanisms necessary to protect their DNA from chemical and physical lesions such as DNA repair pathways similar to those present in the nucleus. However, there are mitochondria-specific mechanisms such as rapid mtDNA turnover, fission, fusion, and mitophagy. Nevertheless, mtDNA mutations may be abundant in somatic tissue due mainly to the proximity of the mtDNA to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and, consequently, to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during ATP production. In this review, we summarise the most common types of mtDNA lesions and mitochondria repair mechanisms. The second part of the review focuses on the physiological role of mtDNA damage in ageing and the effect of mtDNA mutations in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Considering the central role of mitochondria in maintaining cellular homeostasis, the analysis of mitochondrial function is a central point for developing personalised medicine.

Mitochondrial DNA Repair in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Ageing

Perrone, Lorena;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mitochondria are the only organelles, along with the nucleus, that have their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a double-stranded circular molecule of similar to 16.5 kbp that can exist in multiple copies within the organelle. Both strands are translated and encode for 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 proteins. mtDNA molecules are anchored to the inner mitochondrial membrane and, in association with proteins, form a structure called nucleoid, which exerts a structural and protective function. Indeed, mitochondria have evolved mechanisms necessary to protect their DNA from chemical and physical lesions such as DNA repair pathways similar to those present in the nucleus. However, there are mitochondria-specific mechanisms such as rapid mtDNA turnover, fission, fusion, and mitophagy. Nevertheless, mtDNA mutations may be abundant in somatic tissue due mainly to the proximity of the mtDNA to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and, consequently, to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during ATP production. In this review, we summarise the most common types of mtDNA lesions and mitochondria repair mechanisms. The second part of the review focuses on the physiological role of mtDNA damage in ageing and the effect of mtDNA mutations in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Considering the central role of mitochondria in maintaining cellular homeostasis, the analysis of mitochondrial function is a central point for developing personalised medicine.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11387/159866
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