Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are well-recognized features of AD, their correlations with the early molecular events characterizing the pathology are not yet well clarified. Here, we characterize the role of RAGE-TXNIP axis in neuroinflammation in relation to amyloid-beta (A beta) burden in both in vivo and in vitro models. In the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice microglial activation, cytokine secretion, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-enhanced expression are paralleled with increased TXNIP expression. TXNIP silencing or its pharmacological inhibition prevents neuroinflammation in those mice. TXNIP is also associated with RAGE and A beta. In particular, RAGE-TXNIP axis is required for targeting A beta in mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Silencing of TXNIP or inhibition of RAGE activation reduces A beta transport from the cellular surface to mitochondria, restores mitochondrial functionality, and mitigates A beta toxicity. Furthermore, A beta shuttling into mitochondria promotes Drp1 activation and exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction, which induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to secretion of IL-1 beta and activation of the pyroptosis-associated protein Gasdermin D (GSDMD). Downregulation of RAGE-TXNIP axis inhibits A beta-induced mitochondria dysfunction, inflammation, and induction of GSDMD. Herein we unveil a new pathway driven by TXNIP that links the mitochondrial transport of A beta to the activation of Drp1 and the NLRP3 inflammasome, promoting the secretion of IL-1 beta and the pyroptosis pathway associated with GSDMD cleavage. Altogether these data shed new light on a novel mechanism of action of RAGE-TXNIP axis in microglia, which is intertwined with A beta and ultimately causes mitochondria dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome cascade activation, suggesting TXNIP as a druggable target to be better deepened for AD.
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