Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia and up to now there is not an effective therapy to cure AD. In addition, AD onset occurs decades before the diagnosis, affecting the possibility to set up appropriate therapeutic strategies. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate the effects of risk factors, such as cardiovascular diseases, in promoting AD. AD shows not only brain dysfunction, but also alterations in peripheral tissues/organs. Indeed, it exists a reciprocal connection between brain and heart, where cardiovascular alterations participate to AD as well as AD seem to promote cardiovascular dysfunction. In addition, metabolic dysfunction promotes both cardiovascular diseases and AD. In this review, we summarize the pathways involved in the regulation of the brain-heart axis and the effect of metabolism on these pathways. We also present the studies showing the role of the gut microbiota on the brain-heart axis. Herein, we propose recent evidences of the function of Thioredoxin Interacting protein (TXNIP) in mediating the role of metabolism on the brain-heart axis. TXNIP is a key regulator of metabolism at both cellular and body level and it exerts also a pathological function in several cardiovascular diseases as well as in AD.
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