In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated the presence of microRNAs and extracellular vesicles in human blastocoel fluid. The bioinformatic and comparative analyses identified the biological function of blastocoel fluid microRNAs and suggested a potential role inside the human blastocyst. We found 89 microRNAs, expressed at different levels, able to regulate critical signaling pathways controlling embryo development, such as pluripotency, cell reprogramming, epigenetic modifications, intercellular communication, cell adhesion and cell fate. Blastocoel fluid microRNAs reflect the miRNome of embryonic cells and their presence, associated with the discovery of extracellular vesicles, inside blastocoel fluid, strongly suggests their important role in mediating cell communication among blastocyst cells. Their characterization is important to better understand the earliest stages of embryogenesis and the complex circuits regulating pluripotency. Moreover, blastocoel fluid microRNA profiles could be influenced by blastocyst quality, therefore, microRNAs might be used to assess embryo potential in IVF cycles.
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