The brain remains one of the most challenging therapeutic targets due to the low and selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier and complex architecture of the brain tissue. Nanomedicines, despite their relatively large size compared to small molecules and nucleic acids, are being heavily investigated as vehicles to delivery therapeutics into the brain. Here we elaborate on how nanomedicines may be used to treat rare neurodevelopmental disorders, using Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy) to frame the discussion. As a monogenetic disorder and lysosomal storage disease affecting the nervous system, the lessons learned from examining nanoparticle delivery to the brain in the context of Krabbe disease can have a broader impact on the treatment of various other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.In this review, we introduce the epidemiology and genetic basis of Krabbe disease, discuss current in vitro and in vivo models of the disease, as well as current therapeutic approaches either approved or at different stage of clinical developments. We then elaborate on challenges in particle delivery to the brain, with a specific emphasis on methods to transport nanomedicines across the blood-brain barrier. We highlight nanoparticles for delivering therapeutics for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, classified by the therapeutic payload, including gene therapy, enzyme replacement therapy , small molecule delivery. Finally, we provide some useful hints on the design of nanomedicines for the treatment of rare neurological disorders.

Nanomedicines to treat rare neurological disorders: The case of Krabbe disease

Graziano ACE;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The brain remains one of the most challenging therapeutic targets due to the low and selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier and complex architecture of the brain tissue. Nanomedicines, despite their relatively large size compared to small molecules and nucleic acids, are being heavily investigated as vehicles to delivery therapeutics into the brain. Here we elaborate on how nanomedicines may be used to treat rare neurodevelopmental disorders, using Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy) to frame the discussion. As a monogenetic disorder and lysosomal storage disease affecting the nervous system, the lessons learned from examining nanoparticle delivery to the brain in the context of Krabbe disease can have a broader impact on the treatment of various other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.In this review, we introduce the epidemiology and genetic basis of Krabbe disease, discuss current in vitro and in vivo models of the disease, as well as current therapeutic approaches either approved or at different stage of clinical developments. We then elaborate on challenges in particle delivery to the brain, with a specific emphasis on methods to transport nanomedicines across the blood-brain barrier. We highlight nanoparticles for delivering therapeutics for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, classified by the therapeutic payload, including gene therapy, enzyme replacement therapy , small molecule delivery. Finally, we provide some useful hints on the design of nanomedicines for the treatment of rare neurological disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11387/163544
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