Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors due to environmental damage. The primary environmental factor that causes human skin aging is the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Recently, it was established that the long-term exposure to light-emitting-diode-generated blue light (LED-BL) from electronic devices seems to have a relevant implication in the molecular mechanisms of premature photoaging. BL irradiation induces changes in the synthesis of various skin structures through DNA damage and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12, which are responsible for the loss of the main components of the extracellular matrix of skin like collagen type I and elastin. In the current study, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to specific LED-BL radiation doses (45 and 15 J/cm(2)), we produced an in vitro model of skin photoaging. We verified that, compared with untreated controls, the treatment with LED-BL irradiation results in the alteration of metalloprotease-1 (collagenase), metalloprotease-12 (elastase), 8-dihydroxy-2 '-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and collagen type I. Moreover, we showed that the photoaging prevention is possible via the use of hydroxytyrosol extracted from olive fruits, well known for antioxidant properties. Our results demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol protects keratinocytes and fibroblasts from LED-BL-induced damage. Thus, hydroxytyrosol might be proposed as an encouraging candidate for the prevention of BL-induced premature photoaging.
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