Background: Lemierre syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal complication of oropharyngeal infections characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It primarily affects healthy adolescents and young adults. Its incidence declined after the antibiotic era, but it may have resurged in recent decades, likely due to judicious antibiotic use and increasing bacterial resistance. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: Lemierre syndrome has been called "the forgotten disease," with a reported incidence of around 3.6 cases per million. The mean age at presentation is around 20 years old, though it can occur at any age. Lemierre Syndrome follows an oropharyngeal infection, most commonly pharyngitis, leading to septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. F. necrophorum is the classic pathogen, though other organisms are being increasingly isolated. Metastatic infections, especially pulmonary, are common complications. Contrast-enhanced CT of the neck confirming internal jugular vein thrombosis is the gold standard for diagnosis. Long-course broad-spectrum IV antibiotics covering anaerobes are the mainstays of the disease's treatment. Anticoagulation may also be considered. Mortality rates are high without treatment, but most patients recover fully with appropriate therapy. Conclusions: Lemierre syndrome should be suspected in patients with prolonged pharyngitis followed by unilateral neck swelling and fevers. Early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic therapy are key, given the potential for disastrous outcomes if untreated. An increased awareness of Lemierre syndrome facilitates its timely management.

Pediatric Lemierre's Syndrome: A Comprehensive Literature Review

Lavalle, Salvatore;Ceccarelli, Manuela;Maniaci, Antonino
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Lemierre syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal complication of oropharyngeal infections characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It primarily affects healthy adolescents and young adults. Its incidence declined after the antibiotic era, but it may have resurged in recent decades, likely due to judicious antibiotic use and increasing bacterial resistance. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: Lemierre syndrome has been called "the forgotten disease," with a reported incidence of around 3.6 cases per million. The mean age at presentation is around 20 years old, though it can occur at any age. Lemierre Syndrome follows an oropharyngeal infection, most commonly pharyngitis, leading to septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. F. necrophorum is the classic pathogen, though other organisms are being increasingly isolated. Metastatic infections, especially pulmonary, are common complications. Contrast-enhanced CT of the neck confirming internal jugular vein thrombosis is the gold standard for diagnosis. Long-course broad-spectrum IV antibiotics covering anaerobes are the mainstays of the disease's treatment. Anticoagulation may also be considered. Mortality rates are high without treatment, but most patients recover fully with appropriate therapy. Conclusions: Lemierre syndrome should be suspected in patients with prolonged pharyngitis followed by unilateral neck swelling and fevers. Early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic therapy are key, given the potential for disastrous outcomes if untreated. An increased awareness of Lemierre syndrome facilitates its timely management.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11387/166511
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