: Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative tool in the field of ophthalmology, revolutionizing disease diagnosis and management. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of AI applications in various retinal diseases, highlighting its potential to enhance screening efficiency, facilitate early diagnosis, and improve patient outcomes. Herein, we elucidate the fundamental concepts of AI, including machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), and their application in ophthalmology, underscoring the significance of AI-driven solutions in addressing the complexity and variability of retinal diseases. Furthermore, we delve into the specific applications of AI in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Macular Neovascularization, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), hypertensive retinopathy (HR), Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, best vitelliform macular dystrophy, and sickle cell retinopathy. We focus on the current landscape of AI technologies, including various AI models, their performance metrics, and clinical implications. Furthermore, we aim to address challenges and pitfalls associated with the integration of AI in clinical practice, including the "black box phenomenon", biases in data representation, and limitations in comprehensive patient assessment. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the collaborative role of AI alongside healthcare professionals, advocating for a synergistic approach to healthcare delivery. It highlights the importance of leveraging AI to augment, rather than replace, human expertise, thereby maximizing its potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery, mitigate healthcare disparities, and improve patient outcomes in the evolving landscape of medicine.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Early Diagnosis of Retinal Diseases

Caterina Gagliano;
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative tool in the field of ophthalmology, revolutionizing disease diagnosis and management. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of AI applications in various retinal diseases, highlighting its potential to enhance screening efficiency, facilitate early diagnosis, and improve patient outcomes. Herein, we elucidate the fundamental concepts of AI, including machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), and their application in ophthalmology, underscoring the significance of AI-driven solutions in addressing the complexity and variability of retinal diseases. Furthermore, we delve into the specific applications of AI in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Macular Neovascularization, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), hypertensive retinopathy (HR), Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, best vitelliform macular dystrophy, and sickle cell retinopathy. We focus on the current landscape of AI technologies, including various AI models, their performance metrics, and clinical implications. Furthermore, we aim to address challenges and pitfalls associated with the integration of AI in clinical practice, including the "black box phenomenon", biases in data representation, and limitations in comprehensive patient assessment. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the collaborative role of AI alongside healthcare professionals, advocating for a synergistic approach to healthcare delivery. It highlights the importance of leveraging AI to augment, rather than replace, human expertise, thereby maximizing its potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery, mitigate healthcare disparities, and improve patient outcomes in the evolving landscape of medicine.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11387/167787
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