Engagement in difficult motor tasks promotes development of executive functions (EFs) (Diamond, 2020; Davis et al., 2011). In this study we analysed the effects of different types of scaffold on children exposed to a difficult motor task. Methodology. One hundred, 5 years old children from 2 kindergartens were engaged in a specific motor program for 1 hour/week for 10 weeks. The program included learning a difficult motor task (walking on an unstable bar) for which the instructor provided physical or physical + emotional scaffold. In addition, children were divided in two groups based on their initial level of capacity to perform the task. Levels of EFs were measured by the Day & Night test at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Results. The data suggest that in expert children the emotional support fosters the effect of the difficult task on the performance of the Day & Night test; while in beginners the emotional support counteracts the effects of physical scaffold resulting in a null effect on EF development. Conclusions. The data point to specificity of scaffold procedures for combining motor and cognitive development.

Physical or emotional scaffolding in a difficult motor task: What is better with 5-year-old children?

Coppola, Roberto;Sgrò, Francesco
Writing – Review & Editing
2020

Abstract

Engagement in difficult motor tasks promotes development of executive functions (EFs) (Diamond, 2020; Davis et al., 2011). In this study we analysed the effects of different types of scaffold on children exposed to a difficult motor task. Methodology. One hundred, 5 years old children from 2 kindergartens were engaged in a specific motor program for 1 hour/week for 10 weeks. The program included learning a difficult motor task (walking on an unstable bar) for which the instructor provided physical or physical + emotional scaffold. In addition, children were divided in two groups based on their initial level of capacity to perform the task. Levels of EFs were measured by the Day & Night test at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Results. The data suggest that in expert children the emotional support fosters the effect of the difficult task on the performance of the Day & Night test; while in beginners the emotional support counteracts the effects of physical scaffold resulting in a null effect on EF development. Conclusions. The data point to specificity of scaffold procedures for combining motor and cognitive development.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11387/143565
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